Ductal and Structural abnormalities in Men

Men experience infertility as much as women do and many a times, it is due to his structural and ductal abnormalities in his reproductive organs. Sperm needs to travel through several tubes or ducts before it is ejaculated out of the penis and any blockage in one of these ducts would make pregnancy very difficult. Therefore, if you are trying to get pregnant, it is very important that you get yourself checked to make sure everything is working and flowing well.

Male reproductive ducts can get blocked for several reasons. Scar tissue, which can develop after surgery or an infection are few of these reasons. When there are blockages in these ducts, it acts as a barrier and prevents sperm from joining the semen, therefore causing infertility. If you suffer from any ductal abnormalities, there are a variety of surgeries than can help you unclog your ducts in your reproductive system. However, if the blockages are too many and too extensive, you may need to retrieve your sperm surgically and then do an IVF in order to get pregnant.

A man may also experience infertility due to structural problems in his reproductive organs. Structural problems usually occur when reproductive organs have not developed properly during his fetal development and can cause a lot of problems. A few of these structural problems or congenital defects that occur in men are CAVD, Hypospadias and undescended testicles.


CAVD stand for Congenital Absence of the Vas Deferens. It is a rare condition in which a man is born without a vas deferens. Vas deferens is a tube, which transports the sperm from the testis to the seminal vesicle in order to join his semen. So, a man born without a Vas deferens would not be able to join his semen, therefore, causing infertility. Since a man's vas deferens cannot be inserted or replaced, men with CAVD have to remove their sperm surgically and then use it in ICSI-assisted IVF.


Hypospadias is a condition in which the urethral opening in men is located on the underside rather than the tip of the penis. Sometimes, the opening can be as far down as the scrotum. Mild cases of hypospadias are left alone since they cannot affect sexual or reproductive functions. However, in more serious cases, surgery is required to straighten out the penile shaft. Surgery should also be done at an early age between age 3 and 18 months.

Undescended Testicles

In this condition, the testicles fail to descend from the abdomen to the scrotum during fetal development. Surgery is required to correct his condition and should be done before age one or else it may lead to infertility in the future. Men with undescended testicles at birth are also at more risk of developing testicular cancer.

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